Improving Computer Scalability & Reliability to Enable Continued Technology Advancement

Metastability References

S. Beer, R. Ginosar, J. Cox, T. Chaney, D. Zar “Metastability challenges for 65nm and beyond; simulation and measurements” Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE), 2013 VIEW FULL ARTICLE S. Beer, R. Ginosar “Eleven ways to boost your...

read more

Measuring Metastability

Measuring metastability is just 50 years old this year. In 1965 my colleague Tom Chaney took a sampling ‘scope picture of an ECL flip-flop going metastable. S. Lubkin had made mention of the phenomenon over a decade before that, but at that time most engineers were...

read more

When is a Million-Year MTBF Too Short?

Jerry Cox The reliability metric, Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF), is often misunderstood. Use of an MTBF metric generally assumes a random failure process, one that is very infrequent and has no memory of past failures. Such failure modes can occur in...

read more

Synchronizer Reliability Metrics

Jerry Cox As an example of the need for real-world reliability metrics, consider a modern automobile. We can already buy a car with parking assistance, collision avoidance, autonomous braking and adaptive cruise control features. These new features depend on video...

read more

Real World Examples of Metastability

Jerry Cox From the beginning, now some 50 years ago, we often ran into requests for help such as: “we need help, but this work needs to confidential. If this became known, it would damage the reputation of our product.” It was, and is, rare where we were allowed to...

read more

MTBF Bounds for Multistage Synchronizers

Salomon Beer Abstract— Synchronizers are used to mitigate the effects of metastability in multiple clock domain System-on-Chip devices. In order to enable reliable synchronization, the synchronizer MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) should be much longer than the...

read more

Metastability and Fatal System Errors

Jerry Cox Metastability is an inescapable phenomenon in digital electronic systems, particularly those with multiple independent clock domains such as System-on-Chip (SoC) products. This phenomenon has been known to cause fatal system errors for half a century. Over...

read more


12 + 12 =