Improving Computer Scalability & Reliability to Enable Continued Technology Advancement

Synchronization and Metastability

Steve Golson Trilobyte Systems ABSTRACT The phenomenon of metastability is inherent in clocked digital logic. Many techniques have been presented for minimizing metastability, both for crossing clock domains, and for handling asynchronous inputs. Some of these “best...

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Ambiguous Behavior of Logic Bistable Systems

Marco Hurtado and David Elliott Washington University, St. Louis First presented at Allerton Conference, October 1-4, 1975 ABSTRACT The standard specifications of logic bistable devices do not specify the behavior under conditions in which the input is logically...

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Simulating the Behavior of Synchronizers

J. Cox, T. Chaney, D. Zar 13 Feb 2011 By simulating the behavior of a synchronizer, an estimate of its Mean-Time-Between-Failures (MTBF) can be obtained. The method for estimating MTBF described here was originally based on the work of Molnar and Rosenberger [1], work...

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Real World Examples of Metastability

Jerry Cox From the beginning, now some 50 years ago, we often ran into requests for help such as: “we need help, but this work needs to confidential. If this became known, it would damage the reputation of our product.” It was, and is, rare where we were allowed to...

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MTBF Bounds for Multistage Synchronizers

Salomon Beer Abstract— Synchronizers are used to mitigate the effects of metastability in multiple clock domain System-on-Chip devices. In order to enable reliable synchronization, the synchronizer MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) should be much longer than the...

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Metastability and Fatal System Errors

Jerry Cox Metastability is an inescapable phenomenon in digital electronic systems, particularly those with multiple independent clock domains such as System-on-Chip (SoC) products. This phenomenon has been known to cause fatal system errors for half a century. Over...

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Simulating the Behavior of Synchronizers

Jerry Cox By simulating the behavior of a synchronizer, an estimate of its Mean-Time-Between-Failures (MTBF) can be obtained. The method for estimating MTBF described here was originally based on the work of Molnar and Rosenberger [1], work which depended heavily for...

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